1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes vitamin K2 metabolism in human osteoblasts. 

Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in food. Effect of food matrix on circulating vitamin K concentrations

1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a potent suppressor of interferon γ–mediated macrophage activation

Dietary chromium intake. Freely chosen diets, institutional diet, and individual foods. 

25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in healthy premenopausal women association with bone turnover markers and bone mineral density. 

Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease The Rotterdam Study

Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg)

A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. 

Age- and gender-related difference of ACE2 expression in rat lung.

Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation.

Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3.

Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. 

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in lung diseases

Effects of diets high in simple sugars on urinary chromium losses. 

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from lethal avian influenza A H5N1 infections.

Le importanti funzioni sviluppate dalla vitamina K.


Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

Broadhurst CL, Domenico P (2006) Clinical Studies on chromium picolinate

supplementation in diabetes mellitus-a review. Diabetes Technol Ther 8(6):677-


2. Roussel AM Bureau I. Favier M, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Anderson RA (2002)

Beneficial effects of hormonal replacement therapy on chromium status and glu-

cose and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 42:63-69

3. Anderson RA (1997) Chromium as an essential nutrient for humans. Regulatory

Toxicology and Pharmacology 26:S35-S41 

4. Anderson RA (1998) Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. Journal of

the American College of Nutrition 17(6):548-555

5. Singer GM, Geohas J (2006) The Effect of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin

Supplementation on Glycemic Control in Poorly Controlled Patients with Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Randomized Trial.

Diabetes Technol Ther 8(6):636-643

Broadhurst CL, Domenico P 

Clinical Studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus-a review. Diabetes

Technol Ther (2006) 8(6):677-687

BOX 2. Segni e sintomi di deficit di Cr negli umani [1]

I segni di deficienza del cromo includono:

• ridotta tolleranza al glucosio

• elevate glicemia e insulinemia 

• glicosuria

• ridotti recettori per l’insulina

• ridotto legame tra insulina e recettori

• elevate colesterolemia e trigliceridemia

• diminuite lipoproteine ad alta densità (HDL)

• riduzione della massa magra

• aumento della massa grassa

• aumento della pressione oculare

• disturbi del sistema nervoso centrale 

• neuropatia periferica

• basso quoziente respiratorio

• anomalo metabolismo azotato


Chromium as a supplement.

Chromium deficiency after long-term total parenteral nutrition. 

Chromium supplementation of human subjects effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. 

Circulating Dephospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein Is Associated With Kidney Dysfunction and Arterial Stiffness.






Current vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency a position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society

Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein is a novel circulating biomarker predicting deterioration of renal function in the general population.

Regulation of bone remodeling by vitamin K2.

Myneni VD, Mezey E.

Chromium alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic ER stress in obese mice.

The effect of combined inositol supplementation on maternal metabolic profile in pregnancies complicated by metabolic syndrome and obesity.

Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium.

The role of chromium in nutrition and therapeutics and as a potential toxin.


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